The Hyperbolic

Black-Hole Field Anomaly

Supermassive black-holes pervade the universe. In the field of our view, within the light cone of our observational limit, there are over 200 billion supermassive black holes residing at the centers of large galaxies. There are probably many more large naked black holes residing in enormous dust clouds or simply standing alone as bald singularities in elliptical galaxies and globular clusters and within galactic clusters and superclusters. These invisible black-holes simply have not had enough time to accumulate a large cloak of glowing matter that emits light by virtue of its in-fall to their event horizons. Therefore, they are truly black.

Black-holes and their hyperbolic gravitational fields fully account for the dark matter necessary to keep galaxies spinning at their observed rates and to bind galactic clusters and superclusters. If there are large enough numbers of such black holes to do this job, then the assumption of the Cosmological Principle is dead wrong by this fact alone.

It is as though the universe is made of Swiss cheese and we have assumed it is made of white cheddar. It is well known that a medium filled with small bubbles or tiny solid particles behaves very differently toward the propagation of any type of energy through it. Numerous small bubbles, for instance, lower the speed of sound and affect the way a medium like water absorbs microwaves. Shock waves propagate so differently that the behavior of the explosion front in the conventional chemical explosive has to be taken into account in the design of nuclear weapons. Bubbles and dispersed solids must be avoided.

When assumptions are made regarding the type of "perfect fluid" of which the universe is made we cannot disregard exceptional circumstances like the presence of a froth of black-holes embedded within it. It matters little that there are good reasons for using approximations like the Cosmological Principle. Something must be done to allow the formulation of comprehensible theory giving the means for tractable calculation. But, this theory and such calculation must be regarded as only approximate. Unless steps are taken to greatly refine theory and bring calculations up to a much higher standard, there shall be no such thing as "precision cosmology".

The hyperbolic black-hole (HBH) gravitational fields, stemming from supermassive black-holes at the centers of galaxies, extend far beyond the visible boundaries of the galaxies themselves. The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) effect shows that these fields may be virtually infinite in extent. If this is so, the spacetime continuum that is actually present in the universe is very different from the one that Einstein assumed. These oversimplifications are implicit in the Friedmann LeMaitre Robertson Walker metric that Friedmann used to formulate the form of the General Relativity equations that cosmologists commonly use. In other words, the whole structure upon which is built the argument for acceleration of the rate of expansion of the universe and the existence of dark energy (not to mention dark matter) is deeply suspect.

It is just too bad, so sad, that so many physicists have devoted whole careers to mastering the mathematics of General Relativity from the perspective of the FLRW metric and the Friedmann equations. These anachronistic personalities will simply have to die off or retire before we can make progress. After all, there is some truth in the saying about physicists who see everything in terms of some simplifying assumption. "First, we assume a perfect sphere." is not how to do critical science deserving of massive funding.

Only spacetime itself is homogeneous and isotropic. But, once it becomes filled with supermassive black-holes and other dark naked singularities, it cannot be treated this way with any degree of precision or accuracy. Some investigators have already picked up on this fact. They are formulating new cosmologies with different metrics and are abandoning the oversimplified assumptions that were designed to make calculations easy. Much too easy. They have come to appreciate the power of supercomputers and advanced mathematical logic programs to handle more realistic models of the universe. This twenty-first century trend is only just beginning. The real revolution in cosmology has yet to come. It will be a counterrevolution, for the twentieth century is dead.

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